The contribution of cardiovascular mortality to long term outcomes in a relatively young demographic following acute pulmonary embolism: a validation study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Long-term studies following acute pulmonary embolism (PE) remain limited in the current era. A recent study from our collaborative group, in a contemporary adult population, showed substantially increased cardiovascular mortality following PE. We sought to evaluate the contribution of cardiovascular mortality to long-term outcomes in a different demographic that comprised of a significantly younger PE cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS Demographic and clinical characteristics were retrospectively collected for this cohort, and similar methods and outcome measures were applied as detailed in the original study. We compared a population from a different metropolitan area (LH: Liverpool Hospital) to that from the original study (CRGH: Concord Hospital) over a similar time period. A total of 815 patients comprised this cohort with mean 5.3±3.8year follow-up. There were similar demographics between the two cohorts, though the mean age was significantly younger in LH group (60 vs 68years, p<0.001). Prior history of cardiovascular disease in the LH group was half of that present in the CRGH cohort. The overall mortality was 7.4% per patient-year. Patients with underlying cardiovascular disease when presenting with an acute PE had a 2.3-fold increased risk of death during follow-up compared to those without. Multivariate analysis showed that older age, male gender, malignancy, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and chronic pulmonary disease were independent predictors of post-discharge mortality. CONCLUSIONS Despite our cohort being significantly younger with a lower incidence of pre-existing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease was still a significant contributor to long-term outcomes and an important predictor of mortality following acute PE.

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